2013/05/24: Mark Hersam, ISEPP Lecture: "Age Of Carbon: Buckyballs, Nanotubes, Graphene and Beyond"

by Gene Kim on

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Sponsor: FEI

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Mark Hersam, ISEPP Lecture: "Age Of Carbon: Buckyballs, Nanotubes, Graphene and Beyond"

  • Watching lecture: Mark Hersam, ISEPP Lecture: "Age Of Carbon: Buckyballs, Nanotubes, Graphene and Beyond"
  • Ages of materials science
    • Stone Age: 2.5 million years ago
    • Bronze Age: 3200-600 BC: advent of copper and bronze: advanced weapons
    • Iron Age: 1200BC - 400AD: Iron and alloy steel, enabled industrial revolution
  • 20th Century
    • Plastics: advent of polymers and plastics
    • Semicondutors
  • 21st Century: suggest that the material of this century will be carbon
  • Graphene is 2-D form of carbon: allow construction of Fullerine (0D), Nanotube (1D), Graphite (3D)
  • Breakthroughs: C60 creation earned Nobel Prize (1996), Graphene Articles won Nobel Prize in 2010
  • "Fullerenes are now being modified exetrnally, allowing chgs to solubility and electronic properties"
  • "Carbon nanotubes (CNT) has density like aluminum, but order of magnitude higher tensile strength like steel"
  • "CNT has 1000x higher current load than copper"
  • "Diamonds can transmit 3320 W/mK (heat transmission: Watt per meter per Kelvin: ); CNT can do 6000"
  • Issue for nano-science vs. bulk materials: properties depend on composition as well as size (i.e., inhomogeneity or polydispersity problem)
  • Big problem: how do you separate two CNTs: both are 1 nm wide, but have different chiralities
  • It took his lab 15 years to solve the problem: answer found not in materials science, but life sciences (this is one of the themes of the talk)
  • solution: insert CNTs into gradient solution, put into centrifuge, accelerate at 1000 Gs; will get stratified by properties
  • Sodium Cholate is our surfactant: (a common biproduct of meat packing plants: literally what gets mopped off of floors, and very cheap)
  • Each diameter CNT absorbs a different wavelength of light
  • "The first time carbon nanotubes could be observed by naked eye"
  • "Next step was to separate metallic vs. semiconducting CNTs: key to practical applications"
  • "Challenge of NanoIntegris: go from mL quantities to 55 gallon drums: used techniques from pharmaceutical: by himself, generated 10x worldwide demand"
  • Okay, now what do you do with them?
    • IBM wants to use them in transistors
    • you don't need $1B clean rooms: they're in solution, so you can use ink-jet print tech to spray it on: printed electronics
    • IBM proof of concept: CNT constructed transistor worked at 150 GHz operating frequency
    • laser diode: not red like laser pointer, but infrared (similar to fiber optic frequencies); and it's polarized
  • How about metallic nanotubes? What are they useful for?
    • you can thin films but still support high current, and be transparent (optically transparent, but electrically conductive: unlike glass)
    • and get different colors (from different diameters)
    • this has gotten lots of attention from solar panel companies:
    • organic, plastic based solar cells: outperform conventional solar cells by 50x (!!!)
  • Biotech uses
    • graphene is hydophoic: problem is that biologics are 80% aqueous: so graphene will clump
  • Holy crap. 2010 Nobel Prize: Geim/Novoselov: isolated graphene: used Scotch tape to get 1 molecule layer from graphite (!!!)
    • Now have scalable techniques to create graphene
  • Invention of transisitor was 1947: took 15 years to create the integrated circuit, b/c of challenges of integrating semiconductors w/other materials

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